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中国境内部分更新世哺乳动物群的支序系统学分析及生物年代学推断

发表日期:2019-05-24来源:放大 缩小

编辑:董 为,刘文晖,白炜鹏

摘要:在中国境内有很多地点产出更新世哺乳动物群,为哺乳动物演化、生物年代学、古生态学、古环境学、古动物地理学等的研究提供了很好的材料。在生物年代学方面,动物群组合面貌和绝灭率曾经是用来推断动物群年龄的方法。在此基础上又发展出根据Brainerd-Robinson法则对动物群的二元相似性系数进行排序,通过二元相似性系数确定动物群的古老系数判断动物群的年代顺序等方法。而二元相似性系数的确定取决于一个种类在一个动物群中的存在与否,类似于支序系统学中性状矩阵的建立是根据一个特征在一个种类中存在与否那样。因此本文尝试使用支序系统学方法来研究动物群之间的演化关系,选择了一些经过二元相似性系数排序的动物群进行支序系统学分析,将这些结果与使用其他生物年代学方法得出的结果进行比较,结合一些动物群绝对年龄的测年成果,对那些尚未进行绝对年龄测年的动物群进行年龄推断,得出的绝对年龄如下:辽宁大连的古龙山动物群为16~20 ka; 辽宁本溪的山城子动物群为20~30 ka; 安徽东至人遗址的华龙洞动物群为150~400 ka; 河南南召人遗址的杏花山动物群为150~400 ka; 陕西洛南人遗址的东河动物群为500~700 ka; 湖北郧西人遗址的白龙洞动物群为500~850 ka; 湖北郧县的梅铺动物群为500~850 ka; 广西田东人遗址的么会洞动物群为1.2~1.8 Ma; 广西柳城巨猿洞动物群为1.2~1.5 Ma; 内蒙古赤峰初头朗动物群为1.6~1.9 Ma; 安徽繁昌人字洞动物群为1.9~2.4 Ma。
关键词:中国,更新世,哺乳动物群,支序系统学,生物年代学
卷期:第58卷,第1期

Cladistic approach on chronological relationship of the Pleistocene mammalian faunas from China

DONG Wei, LIU Wen-Hui, BAI Wei-Peng

Abstract  There are many localities yielding the Pleistocene mammalian faunas in China. It offers excellent material for the study of mammalian evolution, biochronology, paleoecology, paleoenvironment, paleozoogeography, etc. Faunal assemblage characters and taxonomic extinction rates were widely used for determining the faunal ages in biochronology. Faunal binary similarity coefficients sequenced according to Brainerd-Robinson’s rule and antiquity coefficients were further developed methods in biochronology for dating the faunal ages. The faunal binary similarity coefficients are based on the presence or absence of a taxon in a fauna. It is similar to the presence or absence of a character of a species in cladistic analyses for phylogeny, and all faunas have a special ancestor-descendant relationship. The present work is an attempt to find the relationship of the faunas with cladistic methods by selecting three groups of faunas sequenced by faunal binary similarity coefficients according to Brainerd-Robinson’s rule and antiquity coefficients, to compare the results with different methods, and then to estimate the ages of the faunas not yet dated by physical or chemical methods. The estimations are as follow: Gulongshan in Dalian, Liaoning Province: 16–20 ka; Shanchengzi at Benxi, Liaoning Province: 20–30 ka; Hualongdong at Dongzhi Man site, Anhui Province: 150–400 ka; Xinghuashan at Nanzhao Man site, Henan Province: 150–400 ka; Donghe at Luonan Man site, Shaanxi Province: 500–700 ka; Bailongdong at Yunxi Man site, Hubei Province: 500–850 ka; Meipu at Yunxian, Hubei Province: 500–850 ka; Mohui at Tiandong Man site, Guangxi Autonomous Region: 1.2–1.8 Ma; Juyuandong at Liucheng, Guangxi Autonomous Region: 1.2–1.5 Ma; Chutoulang at Chifeng, Nei Mongol Autonomous Region: 1.6–1.9 Ma; Renzidong at Fanchang, Anhui Province: 1.9–2.4 Ma.
Key words  China, Pleistocene, mammalian fauna, cladistics, biochronology

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