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陕西蓝田晚中新世灞河组松鼠科和林跳鼠科化石

2008年 第46卷 第2期:111~123

发表日期:2008-11-02李志恒来源:放大 缩小

编辑:邱铸鼎 , 郑绍华 , 张兆群

摘要:描述了陕西蓝田晚中新世灞河组的松鼠类和林跳鼠类。松鼠科化石包括3个种:骊山花鼠(新种)Eutamiass lishanensis sp. nov., 细小岩松鼠(新种)Sciurotamias pusillus sp. nov. 和松鼠属(未定种)Sciurus sp.; 林跳鼠科有两个种:西安脊仓跳鼠(新种),Lophocricetus xianensisi sp. nov. 和脊仓跳鼠(未定种)Lophocricetus sp.。在牙齿的形态上,蓝田松鼠科的新种分别与现生花鼠(Eutamias sibiricus)和岩松鼠(Sciurotamiass davidianus)很相似,但特征原始。其中Sciurotamias pusillus新种代表了该属最早的地史记录;Lophocricetus xianensis新种比内蒙古最晚中新世常见的葛氏脊仓跳鼠(Lophocricetus grabaui)原始得多,为中国现知较为原始的一种。这些新种的特征如下:
   骊山花鼠(Eutamias lishanensis):个体比现生花鼠(Eutamias sibiricus)稍大,前臼齿和第三臼齿的尺寸比现生种的相对大。P4具完整的前边脊,明显臼齿化;上臼齿的原尖较收缩,中附尖不发育;M3无后脊;下臼齿的下内尖几乎融汇于后边脊,下中尖很小。
   细小岩松鼠(Sciurotamias pusillus):岩松鼠属中个体较小的一种,齿尖和齿脊比Sciurotamias wangiS.leilaoensis的高且较强壮。P4似三角形,前附尖膨大;Ml/2的原尖收缩,时见小的后小尖和中附尖;m1/2的下内尖界限模糊,唇侧谷窄浅;m3明显向后扩展。
   西安脊仓跳鼠(Lophocricetus xianensis):Lophocricetus属中个体较小的一种,Ml和M2具小或脊状的原附尖,m1和m2的外附尖和齿带不甚发育。M1的中尖通常弱,中脊短,内脊连接前尖或原脊,后边脊连接后脊;M2常见双前边脊,中脊伸达齿缘;m1下外脊的后部低、弱甚至断开,下次尖与下内尖或下中尖与下内尖间的脊连接;m2的下原尖连接下后尖或前边脊。
   脊仓跳鼠是中亚和北亚特有的一属啮齿动物,被认为从异蹶鼠属(Heterosminthus)演化而来,近10余年来有较多的发现和研究。本文特别对其系统关系进行了探讨,对属种的区分作了进一步界定。
   哺乳动物的研究显示,陕西蓝田地区晚中新世早期的气候可能比现代还要干旱。灞河动物群中松鼠类和林跳鼠类的出现,还表明了在这个温带开阔的草原环境中,尚有一些灌丛和林地。

关键词:陕西蓝田,晚中新世,灞河组,松鼠科,林跳鼠科

卷期:46卷 02期

 

SCIURIDS AND ZAPODIDS FROM THE LATE MIOCENE BAHE FORMATION, LANTIAN, SHAANXI

  QIU Zhu-Ding  ZHENG Shao-Hua  ZHANG Zhao-Qun 

  
Abstract  Three forms of Sciuridae, Eutamias lishanensis sp. nov., Sciurotamias pusillus sp. nov. and Sciurus sp., and two forms of Zapodidae, Lophocricetus xianensis sp. nov. and Lophocricetus sp. from the lower part of Late Miocene Bahe Formation at Lantian, Shaanxi Province are described. Similarities of the new sciurids in dental morphology to the extant Eutamias sibiricus and Sciurotamias davidianus are indicative of their close affinities, respectively. Sciurotamias pusillus from Lantian represents the earliest record of the endemic genus. The new zapodid is also a relatively primitive species of Lophocricetus known in China, demonstrating more primitive characters than Lophocricetus grabaui Schlosser, 1924 commonly known in the Ertemte and Harr Obo faunas of Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia). Delimitation of the genera Lophocricetus and Heterosminthus, and definition of the species within Lophocricetus are stressed. Both the sciurids and the zapodids argue for an age of Late Miocene for the Bahe Formation, corresponding to early Baodean of the Chinese Land Mammal Age system. The presence of these taxa suggests existence of patches of woodland vegetation and temperate climate in an open environment for the Lantian area during the early Late Miocene. 
Key words  Lantian, Shaanxi; Late Miocene; Bahe Formation; Sciuridae; Zapodidae 

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